I am now returning to the early Inca dynasty, back to the time of myths, once in the 13th century, if I have to give an approximate year – if such a number makes sense when I have said that we are going to the time of the myths.
About Lloque Yupanqui, the third Inca, Betanzos wrote:
Lloque Yupanqui, who was born with teeth. Right after birth he started walking and he refused to suckle. He said such admirable things that it seems to me that he must have been another Merlin, according to what the legends say.
Betanzos reproduced a myth about someone who was not just born to become Inca, but almost was Inca the same moment he was born. And then Betanzos continued on this infant:
As soon as this one was born, they say that he picked a stone up in his hands and threw it at another boy, a descendant of Alcavicça, who was passing by with a jar in his hands at the time on his way to get water at a fountain. The stone thrown by the newborn Lloque Yupanqui broke one of the legs of the Alcavicça boy. On the basis of this incident, the sorcerers said that the descendants of Lloque Yupanqui would be great lords, ruling that town. The descendants of Alcavicça would be driven from that town by the descendants of Lloque Yupanqui, all of which happened as foretold.
The Incas tribe was about taking power in Cusco Valley. The indigenous population, Alcaviccas descendants, were squeezed out, and it got its natural explanation.
About Lloque Yupanqui, Cieza wrote that this – against the marriage rules but after advice of the big ears – had married the daughter of a Captain from Zañu.
And he continued about Lloque Yupanquis father-in-law:
And as it was predicted that Cusco would flourish, the new King made new buildings and begged his father-in-law to come with all of his allies to live in Cusco where he could be honored. So the lord or Captain of Zañu decided to build his house in the highest part of the city which they called Hanan-Cusco, and the lower flatter part is where the King lived, which is called Hurin-Cusco.
If both stories are to be taken for face value, the Incas had pushed the indigenous population out of Cusco Valley and was supported by a chief of Zañu who settled in Cusco.
And the chief didn’t come alone.
Although Lloque Yupanqui was born to greatness, he had no children with his beautiful queen. It’s no human right to have children, but for many a great desire. Incas neighbors sacrificed to the gods and finally one of the oracles revealed that Lloque Yupanqui would have a son! Then the very old Lloque Yupanqui lay with his coya, and indeed: she gave birth to a son, Mayta Cápac!
As mentioned, Lloque Yupanqui was very old, so the following can’t surprise: he died shortly after his son was born.
After the death of Lloque Yupanquis they conducted the funeral ceremonies, and he was mourned by the city, and they killed lots of boys and women, thinking that they would go to heaven to serve him, and then they made his body into a mummy bundle.
It is true that the preparations for a Kings funeral is very important and all the women of the Empire cut off their hair as a sign of mourning, and at the end of a one year period they carried out more sacrifices, much more than usual.
According to the 1984-edition of Ciezas Inca history, many women and girls should have been sacrificed. Archaeologists, however, have not found mass graves with children. Finds of single childcorps near mountain peaks may probably confirm a ceremony at the death of a ruler but these human sacrifices may also have had other reasons.
About a later deceased Inca Cieza wrote:
Many women who had served him strangled themselves with their own hair and others killed themselves in other ways after he died, so they could serve him in heaven. His funeral was magnificent and very sumptuous, with a great deal of pomp and ceremony, and they sacrificed a greater number of women and servants to be buried with him, with provisions and finely woven cloth.
Archaeologists have not found any Sapa Inca tombs with human sacrifices and can therefore not confirm Ciezas description that many women should have sacrificed themselves and been buried with the deceased Inca. According to most sources, Inca rulers were preserved as mummies in order to be consulted.
So no Inca graves in form of earth burials.
In Sillustani, we saw the raging burial towers, chullpas, where mummies of ruling family members were kept. The older towers had been built by Collao (also spelled Qulla) more than thousand years ago and the younger by the Incas, as these conquered the area centuries later. (See photo page 290.)
There is no evidence that family members should have committed suicide or have been sacrificed for immediately to follow the deceased in death. The tombs have an opening that is believed to have been opened when a family member was to be buried or consulted.
I return to Lloque Yupanquis son Mayta, who apparently without competition was named the next Inca. Cieza wrote:
When Mayta Cápac came of age they carried out the ceremony to pierce his ears, and with the attendance of many Orejones and nobles he was crowned King, and because he had no sister he was married to a daughter of a nobleman from the village of Oma, located about four miles from Cusco.
Nor was this marriage a sibling-marriage.
(pp. 169-173 in volume 2, reproduced without notes and illustrations):
THE WORLD ACCORDING TO AZTECS AND INCAS: MYTHS AND STORIES FROM MEXICO AND PERU. Edited, translated, retold and commented by Mikael Witte. Volume 1 + Volume 2
476 pages + 540 pages. Richly illustrated in colors
Published by Selskabet for smukkere Byfornyelse