CONTENTS: BOTH VOLUMES: ‘THE WORLD ACCORDING TO AZTECS AND INCAS’

VOLUME 1 Contents: Both volumes… 4 My take off… 7 Spaniards changed the story… 22 Mexico today in figures… 108 Mexico: Do you remember?… 109 Where did Mexicos cultures come from?… 110 Mexicos motherculture: Olmecs… 123 Where gods are born… 132 Where did the Aztecs come from?… 145 Huitzilopochtli – tribalgod, god of war, hummingbird…

TWO HISTORICAL PLAZAS: IN MEXICO AND IN PERU

Today, the populations of Mexico and Peru are results of meetings between Indians and Spaniards; in most, genes originate from them, and then there are genes caused by Africans, Danes, Frenchmen, Italians, Japanese, Chinese, Lebanese, Russians, Germans and others who sailed or were sailed to America. This cultural mixture has at the Tlatelolco, where the…

INDIAN AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY

Latin America is also characterized by globalization: economic, technological and political. Not military dictators further represented the continent but – a transition – more social democratically oriented politicians, some of whom took Indian postures. Alejandro Toledo, who had grown up in an Indian family, was in 2001 sworn in as President of Peru at Machu…

RESISTANCE TO THE SPANISH COLONY RULE

In Mexico, the Spanish puppet-Tlatoanis could not hinder the anger of large groups against the heavy forced labor, the social misery and the forced Christianizing. The first major Indian resistance was due to Caxcanes in present Mexican states of Jalisco, Zacatecas and Aguascalientes. In 1540, they resisted the Spaniards slavelike conditions and executions by entrenching…

DESCENDANTS OF TLATOANIS AND SAPA INCAS

The Aztecs had been led by an chosen leader, Tlatoani. Although the Aztec electoral kingdom by no means was democratic, Aztecs knew that the ruler was a human being. As an important ritual, the Tlatoani and other leaders could dress as gods, representing gods in the rituals, but they never claimed to be divine. When…

CHRISTIAN INTERPRETATION OF INDIANS

From the first day Columbus set foot on the American continent, he was convinced of the righteous in his intrusion. His conviction was based on the support of the Spanish Majesties and declarations of Popes that non-Christians could be taken as slaves – even though the Spanish Queen Isabella opposed Indian slavery, so the strangers…

INDIAN FAITH VERSUS CHRISTIANITY

Both Christians, Aztecs and Incas envisioned a divine creation, but they had different notions of the time for the creation. From the Bible, Christians knew that the creation had lasted six days. Irish Archbishop James Ussher would argue rationally for the Bible and calculated the first day of creation to have been on Sunday, October…

AZTECS FAITH OF PRE-DETERMINATION AND GROWTH

The Aztecs shared the divine world with other Mesoamerican civilizations. In common, there was only one god, Ometeotl, in the beginning, but this god was both male and female, who were called Tonacatecli and Tonacaçiguatl, ie. a duality. The two aspects of the deity had created themselves and had given birth to four gods: Tlaclau…

MY COMPARISONS – LONG LINES THROUGH THE COUNTRIES

Some hundreds Spanish conquistadors had faced many thousands of Indian warriors in 1519 in what we today call Mexico and in 1532 in what we call Peru. Initially 617 Spaniards in Mexico and 176 in Peru. Immediately an unequal fight in which the counterparts had different motivation, but where both parties fought fiercely; of course,…

MEXICO: TREMENDOUSLY TENOCHTITLÁN DESTROYED

Already in 1520, after Cortés had been welcomed by Moctezuma and had taken him hostage, he wrote to King Carlos how many tremendously beautiful temples there were in Tenochtitlán. Amongst these mosques, there is one principal one, and no human tongue is able to describe its greatness and details, because it is so large that…

MEXICO: CUAUHTÉMOC MEETS CORTÉS

In his letter to King Carlos, Cortés wrote that he had let Tlatoani Cuauhtémoc know that he was waiting for his arrival, but apparently the Tlatoani had decided not to come. The answer of the Tlatoani was that he did not want anything but death. Cortés also wrote that he had promised some Aztec chiefs…