TWO HISTORICAL PLAZAS: IN MEXICO AND IN PERU

Today, the populations of Mexico and Peru are results of meetings between Indians and Spaniards; in most, genes originate from them, and then there are genes caused by Africans, Danes, Frenchmen, Italians, Japanese, Chinese, Lebanese, Russians, Germans and others who sailed or were sailed to America. This cultural mixture has at the Tlatelolco, where the…

RESISTANCE TO THE SPANISH COLONY RULE

In Mexico, the Spanish puppet-Tlatoanis could not hinder the anger of large groups against the heavy forced labor, the social misery and the forced Christianizing. The first major Indian resistance was due to Caxcanes in present Mexican states of Jalisco, Zacatecas and Aguascalientes. In 1540, they resisted the Spaniards slavelike conditions and executions by entrenching…

DESCENDANTS OF TLATOANIS AND SAPA INCAS

The Aztecs had been led by an chosen leader, Tlatoani. Although the Aztec electoral kingdom by no means was democratic, Aztecs knew that the ruler was a human being. As an important ritual, the Tlatoani and other leaders could dress as gods, representing gods in the rituals, but they never claimed to be divine. When…

PERU: COMMON PEOPLE LIVED SAFELY

The Christian Indian Poma described and drew how the Incas year with work and feasts progressed. In January they celebrated Capac Raimi, the feast of the lords, the rain month when some cultivated plants appeared on the fields. In February it was Pavcar Varai, where saint figures had new clothes and when new land was…

PERU: PACHACÚTECS CORONATION

Pachacútec left his father for returning to the victory parade in Cusco, and he was accompanied by his illegitimate brother Inca Urco. On the way a quarrel emerged in the backs between Inca Urcos and Pachacútecs warriors. Some argued that it was an ambush and that there was a fighting, but Pachacútec ignored the tumult….

PERU: INCA AFTER INCA

I am now returning to the early Inca dynasty, back to the time of myths, once in the 13th century, if I have to give an approximate year – if such a number makes sense when I have said that we are going to the time of the myths. About Lloque Yupanqui, the third Inca,…

PERU: MYTHS SHOULD MAKE PEOPLE TO FORGET

The Incas wanted to occupy history, and they succeded very well. When historians today refer to great cultures before the Incas, then these frequently are presented as pre-Inca cultures. The Incas are elevated to be the point of reference. Historically, it is true that these other cultures existed in the time before the Incas, but…

MEXICO: TREMENDOUSLY TENOCHTITLÁN DESTROYED

Already in 1520, after Cortés had been welcomed by Moctezuma and had taken him hostage, he wrote to King Carlos how many tremendously beautiful temples there were in Tenochtitlán. Amongst these mosques, there is one principal one, and no human tongue is able to describe its greatness and details, because it is so large that…

MEXICO: CUAUHTÉMOC MEETS CORTÉS

In his letter to King Carlos, Cortés wrote that he had let Tlatoani Cuauhtémoc know that he was waiting for his arrival, but apparently the Tlatoani had decided not to come. The answer of the Tlatoani was that he did not want anything but death. Cortés also wrote that he had promised some Aztec chiefs…

MEXICO: FEAST AND UPRISE IN TENOCHTITLÁN – ACCORDING TO INDIANS

In Codex Florentino, Sahagún wrote that Pedro de Alvarado had asked about Huitzilopochtlis feast, how the feast for the god was held. He wants to admire it, he wants to see in what way, and how, it goes. Then Moctezuma give orders. Those of his vassals who still went to him, brought his order. And…

MEXICO: MOCTEZUMA AT THE SPANIARDS – ACCORDING TO INDIANS

At the end of the year 1519, Moctezuma was held hostage in a golden cage. The Aztec population felt that new masters had come to the country, and two generations later, Sahagún in Codex Florentino wrote what he had heard Indians tell about the Spaniards first time in Tenochtitlán: And when the morning came, some…